Thread Education

NUMBERING SYSTEMS DEFINITION

COTTON COUNT (NEC) NO .OF HANKS / LBS(ONE HANK IS 840 YDS)
WORSTED COUNT(NEW) NO .OF HANKS / LBS(ONE HANK IS 560 YDS)
METRIC COUNT (NM) NO.OF KMS /KG(NO. OF KMS PRESENT IN 1 K.G OFTHREAD)
TEX GMS / 1000M(WEIGHT IN GMS OF 1000METER OFTHREAD)
D-TEX GMS / 10000M(WEIGHT IN GMS OF 10000METER OFTHREAD)
DENIER GMS / 9000M(WEIGHT IN GMS OF 9000METER OFTHREAD)

CONVERSIONS

NE TO TEX 590.5 / NE
TEX TO NE 590.5 / TEX
TEX TO D-TEX TEX X 10
TEX TO DENIER TEX X 9
COTTON TO DENIER 5315/ NE
COTTON TO METRIC NE X 1.689

FIBER TYPES :

Cellulose :

  • Cotton
  • Rayon
  • Lyocel

Synthetic :

  • Polyester
  • Nylon

Aramid :

  • Kevlar
  • Nomex

DIFFERENT THREAD TYPES :

Cotton Threads :

Cotton Threads generally provide good sewing performance but their strength and abrasion resistance are inferior to synthetic threads of equal thickness . Cotton threads are more stable at higher dry temperatures than synthetic threads and are therefore less affected by hot needles during sewing Brand in Vardhman/A&E: CHROMA for Overdyeing program, Magika for Hand Embroidery .

100% Spun Polyester Threads :

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100% Spun Polyester threads have exceptionally high tenacity high resistance to abrasion possess good resistance to chemicals in general and are more suitable where acidic conditions apply have good sewing performance , good dimensional stability and good stitch-locking properties in the seam due to their fibrous surface . Brand in Vardhman/A&E : Perma Spun

Corespun threads:

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Poly-Poly Corespun Thread:

High quality super high tenacity polyester staple fiber wrapped on continuous filament polyester yarn. The Filament polyester core provides with the strength while the spun polyester cover gives excellent sewability.

Brand in Vardhman/A&E : Perma Core & Supra seam

Poly-Cotton Corespun:

High quality extra long cotton staple fiber wrapped on continuous filament polyester yarn. The polyester core provides the strength while the cover provides softness of cotton and hence very good sewing performance.

Brand in Vardhman/A&E : D Core

THREAD MANUFACTURING PROCESS : COTTON THREADS

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THREAD MANUFACTURING PROCESS : POLYESTER THREADS

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QUALITIES OF GOOD SEWING THREAD

  • BALANCE TWIST
  • ADEQUATE TENSILE STRENGTH
  • HIGH ABRASION RESISTANCE
  • CONTROLED RESIDUAL SHRINKAGE
  • MODERATE ELONGATION
  • FREE FROM KNOTS & FAULTS
  • UNIFORM LUBRICATION
  • SHADE CONSISTENCY

 

Twist Balance: Withdraw about 1 meter of thread from the holder in the same manner as thethread is fed to the sewing machine. Then bring the two ends together by forming a loop so that they are about 10 cm apart. Count the number of turns in the loop. This gives an indication about the twist balance of the thread. An ideally balanced thread will not form twist in the loop. However, practically a thread is considered balanced if the number of turns are up to 7.The above exercise should be carried out in the absence of any air current.

Hairiness:The hairiness index given by the uster tester 3 is defined as he total length in cm,of the protruding fibers over the measurement field of 1 cm.The hairiness index H is the ratio of two lengths and hence dimensionless. Wrap the thread on the contrast thick paper/board (white paper for dark shades and black one for lighter shades). A more hairy thread will give a hazy appearance while a thread with less protruding hairs will give a neat appearance.

Gassing :The process of removing unwanted protruding surface fibers by passing the thread through a gas flame at a controlled speed of 100% spun Cotton thread.

Mercerisation : The immersion of cotton thread under tension in a bath of caustic Soda solution causing the fibers to swell and straighten. Mercerisation enhances luster, improved dye affinity and the strength of the thread.

Lubrication : It is required :

  • To reduce co-efficient of friction in sewing thread.
  • To minimize the heat generated during high speed stitching operation.
  • To enhance the gliding property of sewing thread.

Thread Breakage
Thread Breakage (If Occurring) is a common headache on any sewing floor because it interrupts production, affects quality and reduces the efficiency of production operators and hence impacts profitability.

Causes of Thread Breakage

  • Wrong thread selection for the application.
  • Quality defects in the thread.
  • Improper needle & thread size relationship.
  • Excessive machine thread tension.
  • Flagging
  • Improper threading.
  • Defective/ Worn-out needle.
  • Improper positioning / seating of the needle.
  • Needle heat.
  • Worn or defective thread guides or eyelets.
  • Any other worn-out contact points.
  • Disturbed machine settings.
  • Improper feeding of fabric.
  • Improper operator handling.
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